Current tax regulations in Chinese tobacco control policy are limited, inconsistent, and tied to the structural intricacies of domestic ownership and control of tobacco production and distribution. [13] From 2009, Projects sponsored by Bloomberg Initiative and directed by Yang Tingzhong were designed as the first program to prohibit all forms of smoking in University campuses in China. A campaign by China’s government to get its people to butt out has been largely successful with one glaring exception: The number of women that are lighting up has tripled in recent … [1] The China National Tobacco Corporation (中国烟草总公司 Zhōngguó Yāncǎo Zǒnggōngsī) is by sales the largest single manufacturer of tobacco products in the world and boasts a monopoly in Mainland China generating between 7 and 10% of government revenue. ", "Taxation is a very effective method of reducing tobacco use. Smoking in China is prevalent, as the People's Republic of China is the world's largest consumer and producer of tobacco:[1] there are 350 million Chinese smokers,[1] and China produces 42% of the world's cigarettes. In 2009, the authorities of Gongan County attempted to increase consumption of locally produced cigarettes, by demanding that local officials smoke up to 23,000 packs of Hubei-branded cigarettes per year. However, this opinion runs against the facts. [2], Yang Gonghuan, deputy director of the National Center of Disease Control of China, said that progress on tobacco control is not moving quickly because the government derives large tax revenues from tobacco sales, and the industry employs a large workforce. We assess sex-specific prevalence and changing patterns of smoking in Chinese adults in the current decade. 1 The health burden of smoking … Am Journal Prev Med 2007, Yao T, Ong M, Lee A, Jiang Y, Mao Z: Smoking knowledge, attitudes, behavior, and associated factors among Chinese male surgeons. [citation needed], Impact of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, Arguments in favor of physicians' choice to smoke, Arguments against physicians' choice to smoke. Responding to criticism about the current legislation not being well enforced, Wang Yu, director of the China CDC explained that "This project would create strict legislation to guarantee 100-percent smoke-free public venues and workplaces and figure out a feasible and forceful working mechanism to enforce the smoking ban." [24] The ban had a generally strong impact, with poll results suggesting that a majority of Chinese residents (69% out of over 10000 respondents) are "not only aware of a smoking ban in Beijing, but [95% of respondents] also hope that the authorities promote the move nationwide. The practice is controversial because some believe that medical professionals should serve as role models of healthy behavior to their patients, while others believe that doctors should have the right to smoke because it is a personal matter. Dingding, Xin. In fact, Chinese physicians who smoke may be able to form closer relationships with patients because of tobacco's role in the local culture as a commodity that promotes unity and friendship. The party-secretary smokes. More than one third of current smokers had smoked in front of their patients and nearly all had smoked during their work shift. [26] The public places for smoking ban included restaurants, entertainment outlets, schools, supermarkets, and governmental offices. An economic motivation against physician smoking may be the societal loss that is caused by tobacco use. Furthermore, outside the largest cities in China, smoking is considered socially acceptable anywhere at any time, even if it is technically illegal. Also, the most concrete measure that has been taken is that Expo organizers refused a 200 million yuan ($29.3 million) donation from the Shanghai Tobacco Company last year to maintain their "healthy Expo" stance. Tobacco control legislation does exist, but public enforcement is rare to non-existent outside the most highly internationalized cities, such as Shanghai and Beijing. [10], However, widespread apathy and tacit acceptance toward smoking policy are likely to predominate within large portions of the Chinese population. Awareness of the dangers of smoking, costs, and targeted policies and campaigns have all contributed to this decrease. In fact, men are particularly at risk because cigarette use is highly gendered in … The seven cities are Tianjin, Chongqing, Shenyang, Harbin, Nanchang, Lanzhou and Shenzhen. A physician's personal smoking habits have been shown to influence his or her attitudes toward the dangers of tobacco. In practice, it is often the case that only some government offices, schools, museums, some hospitals, and sports venues effectively function as smoke-free areas. Some have suggested that so long as a cigarette does not interfere with a physician's ability to diagnose and treat patients, smoking should be permitted among health care practitioners. China’s smoking population is in for a rude awakening in light of a new study from The Lancet medical journal. This measure was intended to bring much-needed revenue to local enterprise; quotas were issued by county authorities to offices under its jurisdiction, which in turn were fined if they failed to consume the demanded quota of cigarettes, or if they were found purchasing other brands of tobacco products. Smoking in certain public places in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region has been banned from 1 January 2007 under the government's revised Smoking (Public Health) Ordinance (Cap. A direct positive public health impact of the Beijing smoking ban has manifested in the arena of fire prevention. The Chinese Association on Tobacco Control (中国控制吸烟协会 Zhōngguó kòngzhì xīyān xiéhuì) is engaged in tobacco control by members of the voluntary sector, including academic, social and mass organizations,[3] as strong enforcement of existing tobacco control laws is not supported by the Chinese Government. The study warns that if current smoking rates in China prevail, two million … It has an estimated 350 million smokers — that's 1 in 3 of the world's smokers. Chinese physicians and their smoking knowledge, attitudes and practices. It has been a major health problem for many decades. You are … The resources that are spent on medical school and hospital training might not be realized fully if physicians die prematurely from higher smoking rates. In light of its preparations to host the 2010 World Expo, the city of Shanghai had recently heightened its anti-smoking legislation. According to Medical News Today, seven provincial capitals in China are taking steps to ban smoking in workplaces and public places. Their backgrounds in science and medicine enable them to know more about the effects of smoking on the body compared to the general public, so a decision they make about tobacco may be more educated. Smoking rates of China, Japan, United States and Russia in 2010. Most Chinese normal-speed trains (Z, T, or K types train) offer smoking area in the spaces between carriages still. [4] China does not have laws to punish health care facilities, medical workers and health officials who violate smoking bans, and is instead relying on the Chinese media to act as a watchdog. Nearly all Chinese physicians (95%) believed that active smoking causes lung cancer and most believed that passive smoking causes lung cancer (89%), but current smokers were less likely to hold these health beliefs than nonsmokers were. A massive increase in opium smoking in China was more or less directly instigated by the British trade deficit with Qing dynasty China. The chair of my department smokes. In Chinese culture, smoking is connected to masculine identity as a social activity that is practiced among men to promote feelings of acceptance and brotherhood, which explains why more Chinese male doctors smoke than females. smoking prevalence in women aged 14–24 years.13 In 1988, 34% of male and 4% of female junior high school students in China reported smoking at least occasion-ally.4 Vocational/technical high schools had a higher smoking prevalence than other types of schools.12,13 A higher smoking … ", This page was last edited on 3 December 2020, at 17:22. In order to maintain a robust, sustainable effort in tobacco control, China will particularly need to focus upon the role of public health education in smoking prevention and health promotion. On October 11, 2005, China became the 78th country in the world to ratify the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), an international treaty intended to reduce tobacco-related disease and death. Although there are already some smoking bans in places in these cities, government officials have realized that compliance rate is low and plans to issue a strict ban. [5] With an ever-increasing Chinese smoking population of over 350 million, the enactment of the May 20 initiative represents an important landmark in China's commitment to tobacco control. [30] … [4] The Ministry said that as a "mid-term goal, all health administrations and half of the country's healthcare facilities should be smoke-free by the end of 2010". Prior to enacting the nationwide smoking ban, the Ministry of Health had already maintained active involvement in decrying the negative effects of smoking and striving toward decreased prevalence of tobacco use. [20] Another survey done by public health experts from Fudan University which involved 800 hotel guests and around 4,000 patrons and employees of restaurants, shops and entertainment venues in Shanghai found that about 73 percent of the hotel guests said Shanghai should adopt a smoking ban in public areas, 84 percent of restaurant guests reported exposure to second-hand smoke, and 74 percent of them were annoyed by the fumes and support smoking controls. Women smoked much less. [10], Furthermore, the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project brings up the following persistent smoking issues in its 2009 report focused on China:[15]. Because tobacco remains a significant source of both health risks and revenue for municipal and national governing entities,[6] specific Chinese tobacco control policies in different contexts may betray an overall position of ambivalence or inconsistency. As of 2018, a high percentage of the world population was covered by … In China’s ancient history, tobacco was heralded by military generals to have morale boosting powers and was crucial to the military. This decision was reversed after public outcry and coverage by international press. These taglines are targeted towards bringing attention to the harmful chemicals and long term effects of smoking … China Anti-Smoking Laws Smoking Ban in the Chinese Capital to Move Forward. The number of worldwide smokers hovers around 1.2 billion marks. So don't be scandalized if you see kids around the age of 15 smoking. About one-fourth of those smokers live in China and they are the fastest rising market … It may be argued that as responsible and informed adults, Chinese physicians should be given the choice of whether or not to smoke. [14] The Ministry's "Decision" formally requests local governmental units to "set up multi-agency FCTC Implementation Leading Small Groups"[5] to assist with regional strategies of enforcement, with the explicit goal that: "by the year 2010, all health administration offices, both military and non-military, and at least 50% of all medical and health institutions should become smoke-free units, so that the goal of a total smoking ban in all health administration offices and medical and health institutions can be fulfilled by 2011. Methods A nationally representative survey of smoking … The announcement said smoking scenes are out of line with the country's stance on tobacco control, and are misleading to the public, especially minors. 3. Serving cigarettes … The facts about smoking in China are scary and getting scarier by the minute: It produces more tobacco than any other country. According to Dr. Shigeru Omi, the WHO Regional Director for the Western Pacific region, "implementing the Convention will not be easy, as smoking is an ingrained habit in China ... but the Government has made clear its commitment to take action." There are no smoke-free areas … Here are 44 interesting Smoking facts. Smoking causes cancer, heart disease, stroke, lung diseases, diabetes, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which includes emphysema and chronic bronchitis. Smoking among Doctors: Governmentality, Embodiment, and the Diversion of Blame in Contemporary China. [34], China remains one of the three leading countries (along with India and Indonesia) in total number of male smokers, accounted for 51.4% of the world's male smokers in 2015. Hangzhou's people's congress had approved to ban smoking in public and working places in the beginning of 2010; smoking may be prohibited in some places and violators may be fined up to 3000 yuan. However, due to the Chinese government's complex relationship with tobacco policy (for instance, many localities rely upon tobacco tax revenue as a substantial source of income),[6] there have been many concerns about the practicality of the national policy's enforcement. The China Tobacco Corporation produces 205 trillion cigarettes on an annual basis. Smoking causes 1 in 5 deaths in the US annually. The law bans smoking in 12 types of public places including indoor smoking at schools, hospitals, sport stadiums, public transport vehicles and Internet cafes. Exposure to secondhand smoke causes nearly 41,000 deaths … However, by March 2010, the Guangzhou Municipal People's Congress prepared to lift the smoking ban in work places, including offices, conference rooms and auditoriums. Most of them have no knowledge of the facts about smoking … Some opponents to the smoking ban hold that smoking as a personal choice has nothing to do with public health. According to one citizen that the public health experts from Fudan interviewed, "Smoking has been banned in public places in several countries. [17], Also, enforcement of national tobacco-control policies is still largely sparse in rural areas, where the state-owned China National Tobacco Corporation exerts much of its influence in tobacco production and marketing. The new daily average [after the extended smoking ban] was less than half of what was reported in the first four months of this year, when the city's firefighters had to put out 325 fires caused by cigarette butts, or 2.7 per day.". For instance, local exemptions to public indoor smoking bans are often made for small businesses, particularly in the restaurant and entertainment industries. A 2015 survey on Chinese adults’ use of tobacco showed that China’s smoking … Among non-smokers, 95.1% support a total ban in all schools, 78.1% support a total ban in hospitals and over 93.8% support a ban in public transport. [29], High tobacco use among physicians may be attributed to several factors. In addition to passing the smoking ban, Shanghai legislators have designed a website "Smoke Free Shanghai" [23] to raise anti-smoking awareness. Furthermore, physicians in particular may resort to tobacco as a coping mechanism to deal with the day-to-day stress that is associated with long work hours and difficult patient interactions. As a matter of fact, in Italy it is only forbidden to smoke inside public spaces: cinemas, restaurants, clubs. [29], Male surgeons were found to smoke more than any other specialty. [8] In light of the FCTC, concerns about international image, and strong support from both citizens and domestic health authorities, the Chinese government has become increasingly involved in tobacco prevention and tobacco-related health promotion programs. More than 16 million Americans are living with a disease caused by smoking. [11] With an explicitly stated objective of "building smoke-free environments for the sake of enjoying healthy life",[12] the report has received strong support and praise from the Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids, a U.S. health advocacy group based in Washington, D.C.[11]. Smoking is prohibited on all Chinese High-speed trains (G, D, C types train) now. Smoking deaths in China are set to triple to 3 million a year by 2050, according to a new study that examines the devastating toll of rising smoking rates on the country’s male population. Thus it is prohibiting scenes of cigarette brands, people smoking at smoke-free places, minors buying and smoking cigarettes, and other smoking scenes associated with minors. "[5], The "Decision" also encourages health administration offices to utilize mass media resources and draw upon large-scale publicity campaigns such as World No Tobacco Day in order to "actively promote the importance of implementing a total smoking ban in military and civil health administration offices and medical and health institutions. They have a slightly higher rate than Japanese physicians (20.2%) and Japanese physicians have a smaller gender discrepancy with 27% male and 7% of female doctors smoking. [35] China also remains one of the three leading countries (along with India and the United States) in total number of female smokers, although these three countries accounted for only 27.3% of the world's female smokers, indicating that the tobacco epidemic is less geographically concentrated for women than for men.[35]. [31], Smoking rates among Chinese male physicians are comparable to the country's general population, although overall physician rates are lower. On May 29, 2007, the Ministry released a report (2007 年中国控制吸烟报告—The 2007 China Smoking Control Report) detailing alarming levels of secondhand smoke exposure (affecting over 540 million Chinese citizens), recommendations for legislation to reduce harm from secondhand smoke, and the feasibility of implementing public smoking bans based upon polling data. [29] Fewer smokers also believed that physicians should serve as role models for their patients and that indoor smoking in hospitals should be prohibited. Although China still lags behind many countries in implementing tobacco control policy, the Ministry of Health's May 20 initiative helped to establish more unified smoking controls and codify public health authority at broad administrative levels. [9] China has also resolved to ban all tobacco vending machines,[9] as well as smoking in indoor work places, public areas, and public transportation vehicles.[10]. The study of male and … [4] Nearly 60% of male Chinese doctors are smokers, which is the highest proportion in the world. [30], As of 2014, two thirds of Chinese men smoked. [4], Smoking is a social custom in the PRC,[1] and giving cigarettes at any social interaction is a sign of respect and friendliness.[1]. Mortality rates for lung cancer are disproportionately high in China, and over 75 percent of lung cancer deaths in Chinese men are attributable to smoking. An article published in 2009 interviewed a source who claimed that 60% of Chinese male doctors were smokers, a percentage higher than any other country's doctors in the world. In addition to the May 20 measure, numerous provincial and city-level administrations in China have also enacted policies to control the prevalence and health impacts of smoking within the last decade. ", Despite the popular support for the Shanghai smoking ban, many also feel skeptical about the actual implementation of the law. On May 20, 2009, the Ministry of Health of China issued a formal decision to completely ban smoking in all health administration offices and medical facilities by the year 2011. China is the world’s largest consumer and producer of tobacco.China has about 350 million smokers and produces 42% of the all cigarettes in the world. Smoking bans in lifts, public transport, cinemas, concert halls, airport terminal and escalators had been phased in between 1982 and 1997. [SUPChina, “China’s Cigarette Smoking Epidemic” September 5, 2019] More than 300 million Chinese adults smoke—among them more than half of all Chi… A 2004 study conducted among 3,500 Chinese physicians found that 23% were regular smokers. Despite China's own widespread and complex smoking issue, the ratification of the FCTC in China represents a significant commitment to tobacco control in international public health policy. "[24], "The survey also showed that 81.6 percent of respondents were eager to stop smoking, or had heard of family members and friends who were considering kicking the habit. As a way to amend this problem, the British began exporting large … China has a relatively low social disapproval rate of smoking—according to the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project (ITC), "only 59% of smokers think that Chinese society disapproves of smoking, the fourth lowest rate of 14 ITC countries surveyed. We should do the same, at least during the Expo, since it is a cosmopolitan event. For the entire 20th century it is estimated that around 100 million people died prematurely because of smoking, most of them in rich countries. [WHO; Wikipedia “Smoking in the People’s Republic of China”] One of every three cigarettes consumed around the world is smoked in China. This dossier presents a range of statistics and facts about smoking in Italy. The industry supports around 20 million jobs, nearly 500,000 of which … Chinese physicians have a substantially higher smoking prevalence than doctors in the United States (3.3%) or United Kingdom (6.8%). [citation needed], The government mentioned, upon the release of the budget in 2009, that a full ban of tobacco import and smoking is technically possible. Some 70.6% of non-smokers support some type of smoking ban in bars and restaurants.[11]. The practice is controversial because some believe that medical professionals should serve as role models of healthy behavior to their patients, while others believe that doctors should have the right to smoke because it is a personal matter. 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